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NASA spacecraft finds water on asteroid

CNN - 6 hours 27 min ago
NASA's first asteroid sample return mission, OSIRIS-REx, reached the asteroid Bennu only a week ago, but it's already learning more about this time capsule from the early solar system.

In 200 years, humans reversed a climate trend lasting 50 million years, study says

CNN - 6 hours 29 min ago
What do scientists see when comparing our future climate with the past? In less than 200 years, humans have reversed a multimillion-year cooling trend, new research suggests.

Glory days are over for tech stocks

CNN - 6 hours 29 min ago
Earlier this year, tech stocks were on fire. Now many are struggling, and their prospects don't seem to be getting any better.

Obama pushes Obamacare enrollment as deadline looms

CNN - 6 hours 29 min ago
Hoping to push more people to sign up for Obamacare amid lagging enrollment, former President Barack Obama urged Americans Monday to check out healthcare.gov before the December 15 deadline.

India’s Top Central Banker Quits as Government Seeks More Control

NY Times - 6 hours 31 min ago
Urjit Patel resigned on Monday after the Modi government sought to loosen loan restrictions and spend some of the central bank’s cash reserves.

Is Screen Time Bad for Kids’ Brains?

NY Times - 6 hours 34 min ago
A study featured on “60 Minutes” is sure to alarm parents. Here’s what scientists know, and don’t know, about the link between screens, behavior, and development.

'Stranger Things' season 3 teaser released

CNN - 6 hours 37 min ago
Netflix released a new teaser for season three of their hit show, "Stranger Things."

Doom’s next expansion pack, made by John Romero, will be free—or cost up to $166

Ars - 6 hours 38 min ago

Romero Games Ltd.

John Romero—co-creator of the classic and influential 1990s first-person shooter Doom—has announced that he will release 18 new levels for the game for its 25th anniversary next year.

Scheduled for a mid-February 2019 release, the free megawad of levels will be called "Sigil." Romero's website describes it as "the spiritual successor" to the fourth episode of Doom, picking up "where the original left off." It will include nine single-player levels and nine multi-player Deathmatch levels.

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Climate change is not only influencing extreme weather events, it's causing them

CNN - 6 hours 41 min ago
Extreme weather events that spanned the globe in 2017 have been directly linked to -- and in some cases were even caused by -- continued warming of the planet via human influence through greenhouse gas emissions, according to a new report.

'Stranger Things' season 3 teaser

CNN - 6 hours 44 min ago
We still have months to go before "Stranger Things" returns, but speculation has begun already.

What Congress needs to do by year's end

CNN - 6 hours 47 min ago
As Congress faces a December 21 deadline to avert a partial government shutdown, it must also clear a stack of other must-pass bills that affect millions of people and major sections of the economy.

Why Is Qatar Leaving OPEC?

NY Times - 6 hours 50 min ago
The decision to leave the oil cartel is aimed at reinforcing the country’s autonomy from its Persian Gulf neighbors.

Man held without bail in 13-year-old Hania Aguilar's killing

CNN - 7 hours 7 sec ago
The man charged with killing 13-year-old Hania Aguilar made his first court appearance Monday, the Robeson County, North Carolina district attorney said.

BlackBerry announces new Security Credential Management System

CrackBerry - 7 hours 9 min ago

As BlackBerry continues to their push of software, they've now announced their new Security Credential Management System (SCMS) service aimed at smart city and connected vehicle programs.

As BlackBerry continues to their push of software, they've now announced their new Security Credential Management System (SCMS) service aimed at smart city and connected vehicle programs. The new offering is being provided with no service fees to automakers and public offices.

"The future of autonomous vehicles cannot be realized until intelligent transportation systems are put in place," said John Chen, Executive Chairman and CEO, BlackBerry. "By removing barriers such as security, privacy, and cost, we believe our SCMS service will help accelerate the many smart city and connected vehicle pilot programs taking place around the world."

With the SCMS service in place, everything connected such as vehicles and traffic lights can transfer information in a secure and trustworthy way and it has been designed to be scalable for OEMs and public offices and it has already got the attention of many in the in the industry.

"We are delighted to partner with BlackBerry to demonstrate this SCMS service in a variety of V2X applications," said Kelly Daize, Director of the CAV Program at Invest Ottawa. "Our integrated public and private AV test tracks are equipped with GPS, DSRC, Wi-Fi, 4G/LTE and 5G, making this the first AV test environment of its kind in North America. We look forward to leveraging the world-class security and analytic capabilities of BlackBerry and making them available to innovators, firms, and regions to accelerate the secure deployment of AVs, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and smart cities."

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Watch an explosive showdown between lab-made lava and water

Futurity.org - 7 hours 11 min ago

Explosive experiments with human-made lava are helping to answer the question “What happens when lava and water meet?”

By cooking up 10-gallon batches of molten rock and injecting them with water, scientists are shedding light on the basic physics of lava-water interactions, which are common in nature but poorly understood.

The scientists caution that the number of tests so far is small, so the team will need to conduct more experiments to draw firm conclusions.

‘Powerful forces’

The research shows that lava-water encounters can sometimes generate spontaneous explosions when there is at least about a foot of molten rock above the mixing point.

In prior, smaller-scale studies that used about a coffee cup’s worth of lava, scientists in Germany found that they needed to apply an independent stimulus—in essence pricking the water within the lava—to trigger a blast.

An intense reaction occurs after researchers inject water into molten rock. (Credit: Douglas Levere/U. Buffalo)

The results also point to some preliminary trends, showing that in a series of tests, larger, more brilliant reactions tended to occur when water rushed in more quickly and when lava was held in taller containers. (The team ran a total of 12 experiments in which water injection speeds ranged from about 6 to 30 feet per second, and in which lava was held in insulated steel boxes that ranged in height from about 8 to 18 inches.)

“If you think about a volcanic eruption, there are powerful forces at work, and it’s not a gentle thing,” says lead investigator Ingo Sonder, research scientist in the Center for Geohazards Studies at the University at Buffalo.

“Our experiments are looking at the basic physics of what happens when water gets trapped inside molten rock.”

Researchers pour lava from the furnace after the melt is complete. Credit: Douglas Levere/U. Buffalo) Volcanic meeting

In nature, the presence of water can make volcanic activity more dangerous, such as during past eruptions of Hawaii’s Kilauea and Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull. But in other cases, the reaction between the two materials is subdued.

Sonder wants to understand why: “Sometimes, when lava encounters water, you see huge, explosive activity. Other times, there is no explosion, and the lava may just cool down and form some interesting shapes. What we are doing is trying to learn about the conditions that cause the most violent reactions.”

Eventually, findings from the long-term project could improve scientists’ ability to assess the risk that volcanoes near ice, lakes, oceans, and underground water sources pose to people who live in surrounding communities.

Andrew Harp chips residue off of the lava-making furnace before beginning the day’s work. (Credit: Charlotte Hsu/U. Buffalo)

“The research is still in the very early stages, so we have several years of work ahead of us before we’ll able to look at the whole range and combination of factors that influence what happens when lava or magma encounters water,” says Valentine, study coauthor and director of the Center for Geohazards Studies.

“However, everything we do is with the intention of making a difference in the real world,” he says. “Understanding basic processes having to do with volcanoes will ultimately help us make better forecasting calls when it comes to eruptions.”

Making lava

Lava-water interactions are associated with a phenomenon known as a molten fuel coolant interaction, in which a liquid fuel (a heat source) reacts violently with a liquid coolant. Much of the experimental work in this field has been done in the context of industrial safety, with a focus on understanding potential dangers in nuclear power plants and metal production sites.

The lava-water experiments build on previous research in this area, while focusing on molten rock.

Protective gloves. (Credit: Douglas Levere/U. Buffalo)

The work takes place at a facility 40 miles outside Buffalo, New York that gives scientists a place to conduct large-scale experiments simulating volcanic processes and other hazards. In these tests, researchers can control conditions in a way that isn’t possible at a real volcano, dictating, for example, the shape of the lava column and the speed at which water shoots into it.

To make lava, scientists dump basaltic rock into a high-powered induction furnace. They heat it up for about 4 hours. When the mixture reaches a red-hot 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit, it’s poured into an insulated steel box and injected with two or three jets of water.

Then, a hammer drives a plunger into the mix to help stimulate an explosion. (In some cases, if enough molten rock was present above the injection point, an intense reaction began before the hammer fell).

Another view of the explosive reaction. (Credit: Douglas Levere/U. Buffalo)

In addition to identifying some preliminary trends, the study attests to the wide variety of physical processes that can occur when lava and water meet.

“The system response to water injection varied from mild, evaporation-dominated processes, in which only a little melt was ejected from the container alongside some steam, to stronger reactions with visible steam jets, and with melt domains ejected to several meters height,” the scientists write.

Explosive speed

The study did not examine why box height and water injection speed corresponded with the biggest explosions. But Sonder, who has a background in geosciences and physics, offers some thoughts.

He explains that when a much hotter substance traps a blob of water, the outer edges of the water vaporize, forming a protective film that envelops the rest of the water like a bubble, limiting heat transfer into the water and preventing it from boiling. This is called the Leidenfrost effect.

But when researchers rapidly inject water into a tall column of lava, the water—which is about three times lighter than the lava—will speed upward and mix with the molten rock more quickly. This may cause the vapor film to destabilize, Sonder says. In this situation, the unprotected water would expand rapidly in volume as it heated up, imposing high stresses on the lava, he says. The result? A violent explosion.

In contrast, when water is injected slowly into shallower pools of lava, the protective vapor film may hold, or the water may reach the lava’s surface or escape as steam before an explosion occurs, Sonder says.

He hopes to explore these theories through future experiments: “Not a lot of work has been done in this field,” he says, “so even some of these basic processes are really not well understood.”

The first results of the long-term, ongoing project appear in the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Solid Earth.

The National Science Foundation funded the study. Additional coauthors are from the University at Buffalo; the California State University, Chico; the University of Missouri-Kansas City; the University of Arizona; and the Universität Würzburg in Germany.

Source: University at Buffalo

The post Watch an explosive showdown between lab-made lava and water appeared first on Futurity.

How to Stop Apps From Tracking Your Location

NY Times - 7 hours 15 min ago
Hundreds of apps can follow your movements and share the details with advertisers, retailers and even hedge funds. Here’s how to limit the snooping.

Blocking messages between cancer cells may stop their spread

Futurity.org - 7 hours 16 min ago

New research may answer some key questions about how cancer spreads.

Researchers looked at a gene called EGFRvIII, which is present in patients with glioblastoma—a highly aggressive form of brain cancer that spreads quickly and that is difficult to treat.

Glioblastoma multiforme is most prevalent in adults aged 45 to 70 and has one of the poorest survival rates of any cancer. The exact causes of glioblastoma are still unknown.

“Cancer cells attack us in ‘bands’, but to effectively work together, they must communicate…”

In this study, Janusz Rak and his team explored how cancer-causing genes—also known as oncogenes—such as EGFRvIII change the content of messages exchanged between cells.

“Cancer cells attack us in ‘bands’, but to effectively work together, they must communicate,” says lead author Rak, a senior scientist in the Child Health and Human Development Program of the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and a professor in the pediatrics department of the experimental medicine division at McGill University.

“One way they can do this is via tiny bubble-like structures called extracellular vesicles (EVs) or exosomes. EVs are filled with active proteins that function as messages being shuttled between cells.”

Rak and his team found that the oncogene EGFRvIII that triggers cancer also makes the cells “speak a different language.”

“The proteins in EVs can change cell behavior, for example they can make them invade tissues or metastasize. As EVs send these proteins between cells, some of them interpret this as a signal be more aggressive and this is an important part of what cancer really is,” explains Rak, who has been studying the cancer spread mechanism for more than 20 years.

“What’s amazing is that one single cancer-causing gene, EGFRvII, may change hundreds of proteins present in EVs, completely altering the messages that these cells send to one another,” he adds.

This research holds a great deal of promise for scientists looking for ways to stop the spread of cancer by blocking EVs from transmitting messages between cancer cells.

“Our work also suggests that different oncogenes may have different effects on cell-to-cell communication and on the type and content of the EVs that cancer cells release or receive; we need to know how this works to develop future therapies,” says Dongsic Choi, first study author and a postdoctoral research associate in Rak’s laboratory.

EVs, which can be detected in blood samples, are already being used to diagnose cancers. The EV-associated proteins Rak’s team discovered could help in the development of tests and tailored treatments for patients with glioblastoma in the future.

The findings appear in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics.

A grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research and the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute funded the work. Support also came from the Montreal Children’s Hospital Foundation.

Source: McGill University

The post Blocking messages between cancer cells may stop their spread appeared first on Futurity.

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