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Analysis: Larry Hogan sure sounds like he is going to primary Donald Trump

CNN - 4 hours 28 min ago
The political world is focused on the ever-growing Democratic 2020 field, all jockeying for their chance to beat President Donald Trump next November. But it looks increasingly likely that Trump is going to have to clear a major hurdle before he even gets there: A primary challenge from Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan.

We’re constantly generating ‘shadow’ medical records

Futurity.org - 4 hours 29 min ago

We all have official medical records, locked away in the computers and file cabinets of our doctors’ offices and hospitals, protected by strict privacy laws. But we also have the informal “shadow” records we generate just by living our lives.

In a new article in Science, a team of experts calls for attention to this shadow record.

They describe it as the data generated by everyone who wears a fitness tracker, uses a smartphone health app, shops for health-related items—or really, almost anything—online or with a customer loyalty card, orders DNA tests to learn about their genetic disease risk or ancestry, searches the internet for health information, or posts on social media or other sites about their health.

When academic researchers or industry pool together and use shadow-record elements, they can fuel progress in health care research and innovation, say team leader Nicholson Price, assistant professor of law at the University of Michigan, and coauthors.

In fact, he and his colleagues say companies have already started gathering and selling access to massive amounts of such data. But, they say, few rules apply to the storage and use of shadow data—and the protection of the people behind the data.

Meanwhile, some academic researchers already study bulk data from official medical records—after it’s been stripped of individual identification. That kind of study, called health services research, has fueled many improvements in care and policy.

Price and Kayte Spector-Bagdady, an assistant professor at the University of Michigan Medical School and member of the university’s Center for Bioethics & Social Sciences in Medicine, reviewed the current laws and regulations surrounding shadow medical records.

“Not all industry involvement in health data is a bad thing,” Spector-Bagdady says. “Industry can help propel innovation. But relying on loopholes to collect personal health data without knowledge is predatory.”

She and Price worked with Margot Kaminski, an associate professor of law from the University of Colorado, and Timo Minssen, director of the Center for Advanced Studies in Biomedical Innovation Law at the University of Copenhagen.

They call for better clarity in current regulations, to make sure research in the public interest can go forward. And they recommend that any future data privacy-related hearings, legislation, and regulations should pay special attention to health-related topics.

‘Black box’ algorithms

Price has also written recently about another area of data-drive health innovation that he says needs more transparency.

Called “black box” algorithms, they’re a burgeoning type of artificial intelligence software that harnesses large-scale medical data to give doctors, other health providers, or consumers advice on health topics.

“Privacy underprotection and overprotection each create cognizable harms to patients both today and tomorrow.”

They’re based on machine learning, which feeds massive amounts of data into computerized systems and teaches them to recognize and predict patterns.

For instance, using data about lung cancer risk from thousands of patients, an algorithm could help doctors decide which patients should go for chest CT scans to see if they have early signs of lung cancer, and which aren’t as likely to benefit from such screening.

Writing in Science Translational Medicine, Price describes the potential value of these algorithms in predicting the course of disease, or augmenting the skills of radiologists and pathologists in reading scans and tissue samples from patients.

But he also notes that guidelines for the clinical use and regulation of such tools need to be developed now, including standards for validating the tools’ actual usefulness.

More transparency by industry about the data and assumptions used in making their black boxes could help increase the chance that providers will opt to use the tools—and that regulators would not crack down on them in a way that limits their use.

Rather, he argues, the medical algorithm sector needs regulatory flexibility, transparency, and broad involvement by different sectors of the health system including researchers, providers, and regulators.

“Big data and AI are racing ahead in medicine,” Price says. “And right now, law and policy are playing catch-up.”

Too much privacy?

Price also wrote a review article in Nature Medicine with I. Glenn Cohen of Harvard University’s Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology, and Bioethics. In it, they look at many legal and ethical aspects of the rise of big data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and other data-driven technologies in medicine.

They call for a balance between maximizing the potential development and use of such tools, and protecting the privacy of those whose medical and shadow data would be used anonymously to build and test the tools.

“It is important that we not assume privacy maximalism across the board is the way to go,” Price and Cohen write. “Privacy underprotection and overprotection each create cognizable harms to patients both today and tomorrow.”

Source: University of Michigan

The post We’re constantly generating ‘shadow’ medical records appeared first on Futurity.

Ex-Tiger Beat editor: Peter Tork struggled with being a Monkee

CNN - 4 hours 30 min ago
"Why don't you drop acid with me?" Peter Tork asked me for what felt like the hundredth time.

She narrowly escaped a deadly mudslide and saved dozens of lives.

CNN - 4 hours 33 min ago
Maeve Juarez was perched in the worst possible place, but she had no idea. In the middle of the night, the Montecito Fire Department supervisor sat in her truck waiting for the incoming rainstorm.

Analysis: All the President's broken men

CNN - 4 hours 36 min ago
They once were Donald Trump's strutting, sharp-suited alpha male political and legal fixers, living high and playing the game hard, seemingly immune from the consequences of their willingness to walk on the dark side.

North Carolina's House race is getting a do-over

CNN - 4 hours 39 min ago
The North Carolina Board of Elections ordered a new election for the 9th Congressional District after claims of widespread election fraud.

A Star’s Shoe Breaks, Putting College Basketball Under a Microscope

NY Times - 4 hours 48 min ago
When Duke’s Zion Williamson injured a knee after one of his Nike sneakers split open, it raised questions about amateurism and shoe companies’ influence in the sport.

California Today: California Today: The Oscars Are on Sunday. Are You Ready?

NY Times - 4 hours 54 min ago
Friday: Our film editor rounds up Academy Awards coverage; another round of Trump versus California is on the horizon; and unfussy cocktails

Analysis: What Roger Stone doesn't get

CNN - 4 hours 56 min ago
Roger Stone's hero is Richard Nixon. He has a shrine of Nixon memorabilia in his house. He's fond of flashing Nixon's victory sign -- at the most inappropriate moments.

The Technology 202: Trump's call for '6G' becomes a punchline in Silicon Valley

Washington Post - 5 hours 11 min ago
It was a missed opportunity for White House to tout work on 5G.

Prototype paves way for ‘computer-on-a-chip’

Futurity.org - 5 hours 12 min ago

Researchers have created a prototype “computer-on-a-chip.”

The prototype’s data processing and memory circuits use less than a tenth as much electricity as any comparable electronic device. And yet despite its size, researchers designed it to perform many advanced computing feats.

Electronic computing was born in the form of massive machines in air-conditioned rooms, migrated to desktops and laptops, and lives today in tiny devices like watches and smartphones.

But why stop there, researchers asked? Why not build an entire computer onto a single chip? It could have processing circuits, memory storage, and power supply to perform a given task, such as measuring moisture in a row of crops. Equipped with machine learning algorithms, the chip could make on-the-spot decisions such as when to water. And with wireless technology it could send and receive data over the internet.

Engineers call this vision of ubiquitous computing the Internet of Everything. But to achieve it they’ll need to develop a new class of chips to serve as its foundation. That’s where the new prototype comes in.

“This is what engineers do,” says Subhasish Mitra, a professor of electrical engineering and of computer science at Stanford University who worked on the chip. “We create a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.”

Better memory

The prototype is built around a new data storage technology called RRAM (resistive random access memory), which has features essential for this new class of chips: storage density to pack more data into less space than other forms of memory; energy efficiency that won’t overtax limited power supplies; and the ability to retain data when the chip hibernates, which researchers designed it to do as an energy-saving tactic.

RRAM has another essential advantage. Engineers can build RRAM directly atop a processing circuit to integrate data storage and computation into a single chip. Researchers have pioneered this concept of uniting memory and processing into one chip because it’s faster and more energy efficient than passing data back and forth between separate chips as is the case today. A French team at the CEA-LETI research institute in Grenoble, France was responsible for grafting the RRAM onto a silicon processor.

In order to improve the storage capacity of RRAM, the researchers made a number of changes. One was to increase how much information each storage unit, called a cell, can hold. Memory devices typically consist of cells that can store either a zero or a one. The researchers devised a way to pack five values into each memory cell, rather than just the two standard options.

A second enhancement improved the endurance of RRAM. Think about data storage from a chip’s point of view: As data is continuously written to a chip’s memory cells, they can become exhausted, scrambling data and causing errors. The researchers developed an algorithm to prevent such exhaustion. They tested the endurance of their prototype and found that it should have a 10-year lifespan.

The future of computers

Mitra says the team’s computer scientists and electrical engineers worked together to integrate many software and hardware technologies on the prototype, which is currently about the diameter of a pencil eraser.

Although that is too large for futuristic, Internet of Everything applications, scientists could incorporate the way that the prototype combines memory and processing into the chips found in smartphones and other mobile devices.

Chip manufacturers are already showing interest in this new architecture, which was one of the goals of the team. Mitra says experience gained manufacturing one generation of chips fuels efforts to make the next iteration smaller, faster, cheaper, and more capable.

The researchers will unveil the computer-on-a-chip prototype at the International Solid-State Circuits Conference in San Francisco. Additional researchers from Stanford, CEA-LETI, and Nanyang Technical University in Singapore contributed to the work. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Stanford SystemX Alliance, the National Science Foundation, the Semiconductor Research Corporation, and the Carnot Chair of Excellence at CEA-LETI supported the research.

Source: Stanford University

The post Prototype paves way for ‘computer-on-a-chip’ appeared first on Futurity.

Where does fake movie money come from?

CNN - 5 hours 24 min ago
"I just got out of a meeting with the Secret Service. I'm still in the parking lot," said Rich "RJ" Rappaport at the beginning of our phone interview. The reason for the meeting? Some discussion about fake money.

This affordable therapy works for inmates with depression

Futurity.org - 5 hours 31 min ago

Of the four million prisoners released each year, 23 percent suffer from depression but don’t receive treatment while incarcerated, according to a new study.

They often rejoin society in worse mental shape than before their incarceration, which the right care could have prevented. Now researchers have come up with an effective way to change things and improve mental health in prisons.

Researchers tested the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for inmates battling major depressive disorder, or MDD, as a strategy to bring affordable treatment into a prison setting.

“About 15 million people have some connection to the criminal justice system each year in the United States,” says Jennifer Johnson, professor of public health in Michigan State University’s College of Human Medicine and lead author of the paper, which appears in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

“Most of us have friends, family, or neighbors who have been through this system. The fact we’ve waited until 2019 to conduct a trial like this means we’ve understudied and underserved a huge population.”

About 2.3 million people go to prison every day, and if they suffer from depression, addiction, or other disorders, they often don’t get the help they need. State legislatures determine funding for mental health care, which often leaves prisons understaffed and under-resourced, Johnson says.

Interpersonal psychotherapy

To address the issues of care and cost, researchers trained a team to treat 181 inmates through interpersonal psychotherapy, or IPT. The team included master’s level health therapists working in the prisons and bachelor’s level re-entry counselors.

This allowed researchers to extend the reach of counselors and care without having to hire new mental health professionals, which kept costs down.

IPT is one of the most effective forms of therapy because it addresses difficult life events, which consistently burden prison populations, Johnson says.

People in prison commonly experience traumatic and challenging experiences—such as assault, abuse, poverty, death of loved ones, and loss of family members, children, and friends.

“When practicing IPT, you go back to when someone’s depressed mood began and talk about what was going on in their life at that time,” Johnson says. “IPT deals with relationships, feelings, conflicts with others, life changes, and grief. Using this therapy, you’re helping people feel and express emotions, and problem-solve with them in ways to improve communications or improve relationships that address the original problem.”

Low cost, high impact

Counselors worked in a group-setting with inmates twice a week for 10 weeks, which reduced the cost of treatment. They individually assessed inmates at the beginning of the trial, after the trial ended, and then three months later to see if the therapy had a lasting impact.

“As compared to the usual treatment prisons offer, IPT reduced depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and PTSD symptoms and was better at ending cases of major depression,” Johnson say.

Using IPT proved a low-cost intervention as well. Once counselors are trained and supervision is no longer needed, it costs about $575 per patient—significantly less than treatment options outside of prison, she says.

“This is the first large randomized study for major depression ever conducted for an incarcerated population, one that found an effective and cost-effective solution,” Johnson says. “This method could drastically improve the mental well-being of people while in prison—and when they re-enter the world.”

Source: Michigan State University

The post This affordable therapy works for inmates with depression appeared first on Futurity.

Pregnant Mother Killed After a Driver Mows Down Her Family of 8

NY Times - 5 hours 34 min ago
Jason Mendez, 35, was charged with murder for repeatedly ramming his car into a family with six children in Rockland County, N.Y.

CNN's Van Jones comes to defense of MAGA supporters

CNN - 5 hours 37 min ago
A CNN panel discusses the media's coverage and developments of Jussie Smollett's case.
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